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How The Milwaukee Bucks Brought Their Offense Into The 21st Century

When he was hired in May to coach the Milwaukee Bucks, Mike Budenholzer inherited a promising but underachieving core of young players led by Giannis Antetokounmpo. The Bucks — who have not won a playoff series since 2001 — had just suffered yet another postseason disappointment and hoped a coaching change would help them escape perpetual mediocrity.

To say the results have been encouraging would be an understatement. Budenholzer has implemented a new and more modern offensive strategy that is utilizing Antetokounmpo’s unique talents like never before. Under Budenholzer this season, the Bucks are scoring at a conference-leading rate of 113.2 points per 100 possessions. The team has the best record in the NBA, has won 10 of its last 11, and has already beaten conference rivals Boston, Philadelphia and Toronto (three times now). Milwaukee is heading into All-Star weekend as perhaps the most intimidating team in the Eastern Conference.

So, yes, the coaching change has worked. But what exactly has Budenholzer done — and why is it working so well for the Bucks? One strategic change was clear even back in the preseason when Budenholzer rolled out his new offense.

“Coach Bud wants us to shoot more 3s,” Milwaukee guard Malcolm Brogdon told Eric Nehm of The Athletic. “A lot more 3s.”

Last year, the Bucks attempted just 24.7 3-pointers per game (25th-most in the league). Under Budenholzer, they have pumped up their long-range volume to 37.8 3-pointers per game, second-most in the NBA this season (trailing only the Houston Rockets).

But Budenholzer has done more than just open the 3-point flood gates in Milwaukee this year: He has engineered a sea change in shot selection.

“I think there’s a lot of focus on how many 3s [we are taking], but hopefully we’re having the best of everything,” Budenholzer said to The Athletic. “If you’re an efficient offense, you’re getting to the basket. You’re getting to the paint. You’re getting to the free-throw line. And you’re shooting a bunch of 3s.”

This season, the Bucks have done more to modernize their shot chart than any other team in the league, as shown in these year-to-year charts.1 Their share of shots taken at the rim or behind the 3-point line — referred to as the Moreyball Rate, after Houston general manager Daryl Morey — has jumped by 16 percentage points, according to data compiled by PBP Stats. Correspondingly, their average 2-pointer is being attempted from a shorter distance, about 2.5 feet closer to the hoop. And everybody on the team is cutting back on midrange jumpers.

The Bucks’ transformations in Moreyball Rate and 2-point shot distance are the biggest changes by any team in the NBA from last season to this one. In fact, the Bucks’ sudden modernization is among the most drastic changes in shot selection by any team during the entire era of play-by-play data (available since 2001-02).

Milwaukee has modernized its shot selection, big time

Teams with the biggest jumps in their Moreyball Rate from the previous season and their change in average distances from the basket on 2-point field-goal attempts, since 2001-02

Season TEAM Prev. season given season Diff. Prev. season given season diff.
2012-13 Rockets 53% 74% +20 8.8ft 6.2ft -2.6ft
2016-17 Nets 53 72 +19 8.4 6.1 -2.4
2018-19 Bucks 64 80 +16 7.5 5.0 -2.5
2013-14 76ers 51 66 +15 9.5 6.5 -3.0
2003-04 Wizards 38 52 +14 10.9 8.7 -2.2
2008-09 L.A. Clippers 44 57 +13 10.2 8.2 -2.0
2015-16 Hornets 51 64 +13 9.5 8.2 -1.3
2005-06 Cavaliers 47 60 +13 9.0 8.0 -1.0
2007-08 Magic 53 66 +13 8.0 6.9 -1.1
2018-19 Wizards 58 71 +12 8.7 6.9 -1.8
2017-18 Raptors 58 71 +12 8.3 6.5 -1.8
2014-15 Cavaliers 53 65 +12 8.8 7.2 -1.6
2012-13 L.A. Lakers 51 63 +12 9.1 8.1 -1.0
2004-05 L.A. Lakers 50 61 +11 8.6 7.8 -0.9
2008-09 Trail Blazers 44 54 +10 11.0 8.9 -2.1

Moreyball Rate is the share of the team’s shots taken at the rim or behind the 3-point line

Some percentage-point and distance differences may not add up because of rounding

As of Feb. 5, 2019


Appropriately, Morey produced the biggest Moreyball makeover in league history during Houston’s 2012-13 season, James Harden’s first with the team.

For the Bucks, the advantage of being laggards in the Moreyball revolution has been an opportunity to learn from the mistakes of their competitors. Seth Partnow, now Milwaukee’s director of basketball research, wrote for Vice Sports in 2016 that creating makeable shots takes more than just jacking threes and driving headlong into the lane. “Three-pointers and shots at the rim are indicators of good offense, but they’re not good offense in a vacuum, and teams that use them as targets should be wary of putting the cart before the horse. Those are good shots in theory. In practice, the best shots are the ones the personnel on hand can make.”

Fundamentally, the Bucks have achieved their impressive offensive efficiency on the strength of the two principles of Budenholzer’s offensive philosophy: pace and space.

Budenholzer’s emphasis on court spacing has been emblemized by the image of five “stand-here” squares he had taped to the floor of the Bucks practice court, surrounding the 3-point line. By initiating their offensive possessions with all five players outside the 3-point line, the Bucks leave more space for Antetokounmpo to attack the basket. Once Antetokounmpo draws attention around the basket, he’s free to kick the ball out to open 3-point shooters in space. It’s a positive feedback loop that yields easier shots for Antetokounmpo and his teammates.

The Bucks’ improved floor spacing has been facilitated by some shrewd front-office maneuvers. The team signed capable stretch bigs Brook Lopez and Ersan Ilyasova on team-friendly contracts while at the same time cutting ties with paint-clogging centers Greg Monroe, Tyler Zeller and, most recently, John Henson.

With all that extra space, Antetokounmpo has been attacking the basket relentlessly this season. Since last year, he has increased his volume of drives per game from 11.0 to 12.9; his paint touches are up from 5.3 to 6.5 per game; and he’s now taking more shots at the rim (523) than any other player in the league. These additional basket-attacking duties have put the onus on Antetokounmpo to read the defense and distribute the ball to his teammates.

The result has been a career high in assists for Antetokounmpo this season (5.9 per game), with an emphasis on kick-out dimes. On 289 total assists this season, Antetokounmpo has set up a teammate for a 3-point basket 168 times (58 percent), while he has assisted a teammate in scoring a 2-point basket just 121 times (42 percent). In other words, Antetokounmpo has created 262 more points via assisted 3-pointers than he has via assisted 2-pointers this year. That is the biggest such margin of any player in the league and it’s not even remotely close — Detroit’s Blake Griffin is second with 98 more points assisted on 3-pointers than 2-pointers.

Among the top-30 assist leaders this season, Antetokounmpo and teammate Eric Bledsoe are two of only seven players who have created more points via assists on 3s than on 2s.

The Bucks’ drive-and-kick is producing threes

The top 30 2018-19 NBA assist leaders by the difference in points created from assisted 3-pointers vs. 2-pointers, through Feb. 5

Team Player 2P 3P TOTAL 2P 3P DIFF
MIL Giannis Antetokounmpo 121 168 289 242 504 +262
DET Blake Griffin 140 126 266 280 378 +98
PHI Ben Simmons 236 182 418 472 546 +74
DAL Luka Doncic 151 120 271 302 360 +58
WAS Bradley Beal 152 117 269 304 351 +47
CHA Kemba Walker 174 117 291 348 351 +3
MIL Eric Bledsoe 167 112 279 334 336 +2
ATL Trae Young 239 155 394 478 465 -13
SAS DeMar DeRozan 192 123 315 384 369 -15
SAC De’Aaron Fox 227 146 373 454 438 -16
PHX Devin Booker 174 108 282 348 324 -24
GSW Kevin Durant 192 119 311 384 357 -27
BOS Kyrie Irving 195 120 315 390 360 -30
HOU James Harden 251 151 402 502 453 -49
UTA Ricky Rubio 182 104 286 364 312 -52
WAS John Wall 178 101 279 356 303 -53
GSW Draymond Green 178 96 274 356 288 -68
LAL LeBron James 167 85 252 334 255 -79
MIN Jeff Teague 171 79 250 342 237 -105
BKN D’Angelo Russell 230 116 346 460 348 -112
MEM Mike Conley 225 103 328 450 309 -141
OKC Russell Westbrook 321 163 484 642 489 -153
UTA Joe Ingles 191 73 264 382 219 -163
LAC Lou Williams 185 69 254 370 207 -163
IND Darren Collison 219 89 308 438 267 -171
NOP Jrue Holiday 293 138 431 586 414 -172
POR Damian Lillard 231 88 319 462 264 -198
LAL Lonzo Ball 194 61 255 388 183 -205
DEN Nikola Jokic 285 114 399 570 342 -228
TOR Kyle Lowry 287 101 388 574 303 -271


At the top of the list, Antetokounmpo finds himself in the company of a few other big ball handlers — Griffin, Ben Simmons, Luka Doncic — who can distribute to their teammates from the inside out. LeBron James, who is basically the prototype for this point-forward approach, assisted on 344 of his teammates’ 3-pointers in Cleveland last year (for 1,032 points), more than any other player in the NBA. (He created 226 more points on the 3s he assisted than on 2s.) Antetokounmpo is on pace to post a similarly lopsided distribution of assists this season.

Impressively, when Antetokounmpo has been on the court this season, 89 percent of the Bucks’ 3-pointers have been assisted; that’s 11 percentage points more than the team’s assisted-3 rate when he’s been on the bench. The Bucks’ improved spacing seems to be helping Antetokounmpo create all the right shots for his Milwaukee teammates.

Establishing a faster pace has gone hand-in-hand with the Bucks’ efforts to create better spacing. Budenholzer has emphasized playing with urgency and purposeful movement, and the team has shaved nearly a second off the duration of its average offensive trip (from 14.0 to 13.1 seconds per possession). According to Synergy Sports, the Bucks have attempted fewer field goals this season during the last seven seconds of the shot clock (from 19 percent of all field-goal attempts to 15 percent) and have correspondingly increased the proportion of their attempts (from 59 percent to 65 percent) that are attempted with somewhere between seven and 18 seconds remaining on the shot clock.

Antetokounmpo helps push the pace for the Bucks. Budenholzer has instructed his lanky star to dribble the ball up the court immediately after securing any defensive rebound, which has created more uptempo half-court possessions and shots in semitransition.

The Bucks are shooting better when they keep their offensive flow uptempo like this — with an effective field-goal percentage of 56 percent on shots taken with between seven and 18 seconds left on the shot clock and just 48 percent on their more slowly developing shots.

A new and more modern offensive approach predicated on floor spacing and pace, along with some smart personnel decisions, have helped Budenholzer unlock the immense potential of the Bucks’ young superstar. Perhaps when they hired Budenholzer the Bucks would have been happy with winning a playoff series. But with Milwaukee in pole position for its first conference championship appearance in nearly two decades, the Bucks now have eyes on a bigger prize. The older Milwaukee generation is surely reminiscing of the summer of ’71 — the last time there was a transformative young star in town. And who knows, maybe this season will end like that one, with an NBA championship for the Bucks.

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  1. The 2017-18 chart is through games as of Feb. 5, 2018.

Todd Whitehead writes on the NBA for Nylon Calculus and other publications.